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Until now fly ash has been utilized in low and medium value applications, such as partial replacement of cement, bricks, road construction, soil stabilization, concrete production, etc. These applications have so far not had much success, which is reflected from less than 40 percent utilization of fly ash in absolute terms worldwide.

One of the main beneficiaries of fly ash utilization is cement which has exploited the pozzolonic properties (low cementitious value) of fly ash. The pozzolonic behaviour allows fly ash to partially replace cement. 

Efforts have been made to develop commercially viable technologies to recycle fly ash into different application but no success for various reasons. ZaaKSand™ manufacturing technology has overcome various challenges such as a high carbon content in fly ash, low throughput, un-even size distribution and low conversion efficiency. The technology can process various grades of fly ash generated from German, Australian, Indian, Chinese and Indonesian hard coals. The technology can also process the dirtiest fly ash (up to 15% carbon) which has no usage at all. Furthermore, for the first time any technology offers opportunity to recycle fly ash generated from lignite. 

The process is a novel, efficient and economical method of fabricating ZaaKSand™. The technology can produce ZaaKSand™ in various sizes, shapes, density and strength to meet customer demand.  

The technology benefits:

(a) Building and construction industry to access high quality and well defined sand material with positive effects in energy efficiency of buildings and smart cities

(b) Saving raw materials such as cement and steel from increased structural efficiency as well as lifespan of buildings and bridges

(c) Coal-fired power plants in saving costs from disposing fly ash and

(d) Saving endangered rivers and beaches from excessive sand mining


Technology Proposition

“Single step solution to both environmental and socio-economic impacts from fly ash disposal and fast depleting natural sand by recycling fly ash into eco-friendly value-added sand, an excellent alternative to normal sand”







Co-funded by the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Union






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